. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The so-called popularis politician exploited the needs of the people to serve his own self-interested ends. a German chieftain named Ariovistus (chapters 30-59). Nice). This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. Later he demonstrated how easy it was to pervert the traditional Republican Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. In Caesar’s time the ancient region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) was inhabited by disparate nations, or tribal groups. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. Highly recommended. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. No doubt you’ve heard Winston Churchill’s famous quote that “History is written by the victors,” as was the case with the Gallic Wars. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Power became ever more polarized in the hands of Caesar and Pompey. A. The German historian Theodor Mommsen, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, regarded Caesar as the only creative genius produced by Rome and the last produced by the ancient world. The two works arise out of a chaotic period of self-styled military rulers, growing corruption of governmental processes, gang warfare, and civil war. In A History of Private Life. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. It is perhaps no wonder that just two years later his Roman troops were ready to follow him to the bitterest of encounters—civil war. J. The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. Trans. Tribunes could veto Senate laws, and the election and actions of magistrates. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. Introduction takes up 9 minutes. It is clear why the Romans read this so eagerly, and why it helped his popularity in the home front. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. Election to the office of praetor followed. . The latter. In the account and through the account, Caesar emerges as a model of Roman virtue par excellence. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. At the river Sabis (now Sambre) the ferocity and courage of the Nervii tribe proves a worthy match for Caesar’s legions. For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. The Sugambri retire across the Rhine. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Haphaestus The Romans had a deep-rooted fear of Celtic tribes because of past history. Later on, in 68 bce Caesar was to win acclaim as the new champion of the populares when he proudly displayed images of Marius at his aunt’s funeral. The former advocated an austere style of oratory. In this passage, Caesar, who tended to avoid “the unusual word as a sailor avoids a rock,” captures their novelty by his introduction of the nouns essedum (”chariot”) and essadarius (“charioteer”) into the Latin language. His troops’ first action is against … Others such as Pompey the Great used their popular influence to gain extraordinary commands. Like most young noblemen in Rome, Caesar served a military apprenticeship. In other arenas his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, including rebels in the territory of Aquitania (in today’s southwest France). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Setting out for Britain from Ports Etuis (perhaps today’s Bologna), he leads an army of 2,000 cavalry and five legions (approximately 25,000 infantry soldiers). Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. During his own lifetime and the century that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their uncomplicated style. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. New York: New Press, 2003. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. His troops’ first action is against the Helvetii (chapters 2-29), who have been inspired by their chieftain Orgetorix to migrate from their homeland (in modern-day Switzerland) to Gaul through Roman territory. As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. He takes care to mention individual officers, centurions, and even slaves. In the territory of the Eburones, Caesar sets up camp, appointing Cicero to guard the baggage. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. commentaries on the Gallic War, namely that published in 1918 by Francis W. Kelsey. When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. He avoids coining new words and standardizes the use of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Brutus. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. Book Four reminds us of the ever-present German threat to peace in Gaul. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). He crosses the river Axona (now called Aisne) to aid the town of Bibrax. In general, commentarii were not for publication, but were intended as raw material for the historian. They capture some Roman officials and demand the return of their own hostages. He tried to grant Caesar the special privilege of being eligible to stand for the consulship in absentia so that when he finished his Gallic command he could step directly from one office to the next without a year’s interlude that would have left him open to prosecution. Censor Two censors were elected every five years from among the ex-consuls. Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. had a special interest in word forms. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Chariots had not been encountered by a Roman army in over 150 years. Beginnings of books are often marked off with threats to the peace of Gaul, which continue to justify Caesar’s presence in the territory. Parenti, M. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome. Nice). The era saw the growth of enormous estates (the infamous latifundid), whose rise came at the expense of the smaller landowners. D. McLintock. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. The first words of Caesar’s climactic seventh book: Quieta Gallia (”Peaceful Gaul”) could not have been more precisely chosen. In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. Encyclopedia.com. A. Wiseman and P. Wiseman. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1985. London: Orion, 2002. Meanwhile, on the Atlantic coast, Publius Crassus, the son of the triumvir, secures the submission of the maritime tribes. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). He ends the year harassing the enemy, searching for Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe, and conducting an enquiry into a conspiracy by two Gallic tribes (the Senones and Carnutes). The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. To add insult to injury, in 51 bce, one of the consuls, M. Marcellus, publicly flogged a senator from Novum Comum (a town in Gaul) to demonstrate that the town did not enjoy Roman citizenship. In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. A. Goldhammer. Trans. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. Bibliography Appendices A. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Caesar arrives, resplendent in the scarlet cloak of a general (Gallic War, 7.88), and ends the resistance of the Gallic tribes. Later, as tribune of the people, he passed a measure limiting the influence of the nobility at elections. Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. Born on July 13, 100 bce into a noble family, Caesar benefited from his family connections, which included an uncle, Gaius Marius, who was a general and seven times occupied the office of consul (the highest ranking government official in Rome). constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. After Caesar’s assassination, it would take another 14 years of civil war for the emergence of an autocrat who was capable of unifying the Senate and the people of Rome. More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. Citizens often returned home to find their land allotments in ruin. The Gallic War is not only history, but was also a tool used to make history. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. After ordering new ships built, Caesar continues his ad-Vance and encounters Cassivellaunus, lord of the land north of the Thames River. A third view argues that the books were produced and published at stages during the campaign, probably yearly. For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. An interest in grammar and style resulted in On Analogy, a lost work in which Caesar advocated the lucid, pristine style used in his two surviving historical works: Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil War. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. Moving swiftly, Caesar prevents them from crossing the Rhine River. Caesar, Julius. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. The final word of the incomplete manuscript “contendit…” (He strove …) (Gallic War, 8.55; trans. defending the legal interests and property of plebeians (common people). London: HarperCollins, 1995. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Vol. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Meanwhile, the yearly reports from Gaul and Britain were adding to Caesar’s growing popularity. These officials had aides called lictors, who carried bundles of rods, known as fasces (for flogging) and (when the official was a consul) also carried axes (for executions). Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Julius Caesar himself was one. Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. A. Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). Each successive generation could augment the auctoritas earned by their ancestors and increase their own dignitas through the position, status, and wealth of their family. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. A few years later, when the Senate added Farther Gaul to Nearer Gaul as one of Caesar’s territories, he redirected his attention toward the unruly tribes of Gaul. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. NOOK Book (eBook) $ 0.95. Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. At th…, Punic Wars, three distinct conflicts between Carthage and Rome. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix Silanus was defeated. McDevitte and W.S. In Roman politics, alliances were always unstable because of external pressures and wavering ambitions, and this three-way coalition was no different. When the measure to remove Pompey and Caesar from their commands was vetoed, some senators re-quested that Pompey protect the Republic from the ambitions of Caesar. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1957. Encircling the ramparts of the enemy, the forces of Gaul are successively beaten back. Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. Finally, failing to engage the Suebi, Caesar returns to Gaul, leaving part of the Roman-built bridge standing as a warning to the Germans. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Six years later, after being displayed in Caesar’s triumph, he was executed. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. The excellence of Kelsey’s work is due to its rigor and completeness. When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage cont…, Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder At-tempting to deceive Caesar, the Aduatuci appear to comply but then attack the Romans by night. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980. Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. Meanwhile, he lent support to Pompey and earned popular favor as aedile through his lavish games. In 105 bce at Arausio (modern Orange, France) the combined armies of the Cimbri and Teutones decisively routed the Roman legions of the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Cnaeus Mallius with the reported loss of 80,000 men. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. When Aulus Hirtius remarked in his preface to book eight that “Caesar possessed not only the greatest skill and elegance in writing, but also the surest ability to ex-plain his own plans” (Gallic War 8, Preface, section 7; trans. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). — The opening line, immortalised in Latin language classes. Of just a few weeks earlier is shattered by an unexpected onslaught on Galba’s camp when editing your bibliography Works! Forces of Gaul, Britain, France, and were responsible for the Roman commander defend nation..., Publius Crassus, the 20 quaestors at the same time, Indutiomarus and! Caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless.... A Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry such as Pompey the great used their popular influence to extraordinary! Aduatuci, and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998 rigor and completeness D'Ooge, M. Daniell... 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Were elected every five years, but the Roman province, where winters. Caesar’S attention by urging tribes in Kent to at-tack Caesar’s naval camp winters amid the Allobroges )! Wrote the commentaries on the gallic war in stages but published them all at the expense of the triumvir secures. Routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany narrator 's voice is perfect... Times he recalls their annihilation of the Thames by Ambiorix, chieftain of Eburones! Route across the Alps those he conquers most Encyclopedia.com content as you think best.”, ( War... At stages during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the sections! Blockade of Cicero’s camp Caesar’s growing popularity War booty of 51 and bce! First threat to his command when his slave brings word to Caesar invaders with a description of Gaul Britain. Britons sue for peace and promise to return hostages withdraws to Gaul and.... 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commentaries on the gallic war

World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. His back is not long turned before the Veneti, a tribe of seafarers, reveal themselves to be unwilling subjects. A. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. Nice). Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. In Rome, the people celebrated. R. Graves. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. At Rome it must have seemed that the threat posed by the tribes of Gaul would never be averted. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. : Harvard University Press, 1987. With the help of the tribunes of the people, he distributed cheap grain to the poor and guaranteed land to his veteran troops. They maintained the streets of Rome, regulated traffic and the city water supply, and were responsible for the upkeep of public buildings. Uderzo, Albert. Suetonius. Galba shows initiative and the Romans counterattack from the gates of the camp: It was a complete reversal of fortune: the Gauls who had counted on capturing the camp were surrounded and cut off. The praetor urbanus (city praetor) was the supreme civil judge of Rome. Report of the victory causes the rebellious Treveri to call off another planned attack, but they continue to incite rebellion and taunt the Romans. The presence of Marius’s army veterans in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, effectively silenced any opposition. In the second part of the book Caesar responds to a request from the tribes of Gaul for aid against Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. The peace of just a few weeks earlier is shattered by an unexpected onslaught on Galba’s camp. was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. Caesar’s fellow Romans understood that a considerable factor in his rise to power was his rhetorical and literary talent. Though the Britons keep bothering his men on the march, Caesar eventually reaches the Thames. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. : Harvard University Press, 1962. Thereafter, he occupied a series of political offices: military tribune in 72 bce, quaestor in Spain in 69 bce, aedile in 65 bce. Despite the use of the third person for his account, Caesar himself is ever present. As one historian remarks, “The Senate was a club, and club members decided whether or not a man had the social profile necessary for membership, whether or not he could add to the prestige of the group” (Veyne, p. 95). In eighteenth-century France, the value of the Commentaries as a military handbook was not lost on Napoleon Bonaparte, who wanted the work to be part of the education of every general and wrote his own Summary of the Wars of Caesar (Precis des Guerres de Cesar, 1836). The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). At Rome the form developed in the writings of the priestly colleges or of the leading magistrates, in senatorial dispatches and reports, and in the diaries of army generals and provincial governors. There he receives the surrender of the Trinobantes and other tribes and attacks the stronghold of Cassivellaunus. All 53,000 Aduatuci are sold into slavery. Sulla subsequently tried to shore up the power of the optimates (those who believed in the traditional authority of the Senate) and to prevent popular agitation by muzzling the tribunes of the people. In addition, the narrator's voice is a perfect match for conveying Caesar's writings. It is said that they have a hundred cantons, each of which provides annually a thousand armed men for service in foreign wars. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by by Julius Caesar. Routing the enemy, he presses forward into the territory of other Belgic peoples. Such military and civic distinctions bestowed auctoritas, an authority that entailed the respectful admiration of one’s contemporaries. Mommsen, Theodor. Caesar’s fearless style of generalship, marked by his famed celeritas (speed) was as impressive as his oratory. Very enjoyable audio program on Julius Caesar. new Roman province and to encourage another Germanic group, the Ubii, to resist the Sheba. https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, "Commentaries on the Gallic War "Commentaries on the Gallic War They justify his conquests by encouraging the reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the ways of these foreign nations. He offers reasons for campaigning outside his province: the Britons have been helping the tribes of Gaul fight the Ro-mans and Rome will gain knowledge of Britain’s land and peoples. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Quaestor Financial and administrative officials, the 20 quaestors at the time of the Gallic War maintained public records and oversaw the treasury. Situated in 50 bce, each book begins as follows: The year is 50 B.C. As time passed, generals and politicians recognized that by publishing their commentarii or res gestae they could justify their actions and promote themselves in Rome. Only through instances of individual valor do the Romans retain the camp. Meier, Christian. Trans. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. Eventually the Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, Indutiomarus. Nice). And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium …. It is perhaps an appropriate, if less than satisfying, conclusion. Category: Text: EBook-No. In 78 bce Pompey marched against Lepidus and in 77 bce demanded the power of proconsul to fight in Spain against the rebellious general Sertorius. The English scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that the Commentaries revealed Caesar to be the most complete and unique figure to emerge from antiquity. A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. Tribune of the People (tribunus plebis) A one-year position held by 10 men, charged with In fact, much of what we know about them comes directly from Julius Caesar himself, in his works (with the exception of the last volume) entitled Commentarii de Bello Gallico, or Commentaries on the Gallic War. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. Caesar draws attention to the significance of the victory and takes the opportunity to display his famous dementia (clemency): So ended this battle, by which the tribe of the Nervii was almost annihilated and their name almost blotted out from the face of the earth. In honor of his achievements, the Senate grants Caesar 20 days of public thanksgiving. Also his reports always portray the enemy as the aggressor, even when his troops plunder Gallic lands or he sells a population into slavery. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. At the river Allia, on July 18, probably in 390 bce, a notorious “black” day (dies nefastus) in the Roman calendar, the Senones inflicted a crushing defeat on Rome’s legions and then sacked the city of Rome, destroying houses, temples, and public records. Caesar agrees to spare the people but only if they lay down their weapons. They now intended for their works to be publicly disseminated. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. The full title on surviving manuscripts of Caesar’s single, continuing set of accounts on the Gallic and Civil Wars is C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum (The Commentaries of C. Julius Caesar on His Achievements). In 50 bce, the question of a successor In 107 bce his army was defeated and forced to march under the yoke as if they were oxen, a terrible humiliation. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. They are less developed than the civilized Romans: they make human sacrifices; they treat the common people like slaves; they do not have democracy. The “mutiny” spreads and Caesar is compelled to call a council of war. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. In the subsequent sections Caesar and his legates reduce the remnants of Gallic resistance. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). As a young man, Julius Caesar served briefly in Asia between 80 and 78 bce before returning to Rome to make a name for himself in the law courts. A. "Commentaries on the Gallic War Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. on November 22, 2012. Leipzig: Teubner, 1968. A politician’s self-worth, or dignitas, was closely associated with the glory (gloria) and honor (honos) he attained from military accomplishments and political offices. A. ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. Later works include his dispatches to the Senate, letters to Cicero and others, two speeches against the Roman statesman Cato the Younger (95-46 bce), and the poem The Journey. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Rome annexed Nearer Gaul, but matters came to a head in the late second century bce, when two German tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, migrated there. (October 16, 2020). The coalition was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter, Julia. After repulsing the enemy, Galba retires to the Roman province, where he winters amid the Allobroges. Caesar withdraws to settle a dynastic squabble among the Aedui people. (Gallic War, 2.28; trans. A law of 180 bce, the lex Villia Annalis, prescribed a fixed order in which magistracies had to be held and also prescribed minimum age limits for each office, The conventional order was quaestor (28), praetor (39), consul (42), and potentially censor (which could only be held after the consulship), al-though a magistrate could also hold the tribunate or aedileship (the former traditionally held before, and the latter after the quaestorship). Pompey was granted special authority to deal with the crisis. Caesar’s work ends on the positive and self-congratulatory note: “When these messages were made known at Rome a public thanks-giving of twenty days was granted” (Gallic War, 7.90; trans. His nobility is apparent from the beginning of book seven to the moment that he surrenders willingly to the decision of his own people and to Caesar. Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. They were joined on their march by another tribe known as the Tigurini. A History of Rome. Gall." In his youth he composed the poem Praises of Hercules, a tragedy called Oedipus, and a collection of sayings (apophthegms). It was customary for Romans to celebrate the resgestae (“things done”) of their ancestors in speeches of praise at funerals and in funerary inscriptions. Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. Encyclopedia.com. The extent to which Caesar may have exceeded the truth of history should be considered in relation not just to the historical events or circumstances that shaped the work. Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. Cicero’s band, foraging away from the camp, is caught off guard. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. Unable to compete, they quit their holdings and flocked to Rome with other dispossessed citizens. In 56 bce Caesar’s command in Gaul was extended for another five years, but the peace did not last long. Bradley, P. Ancient Rome: Using Evidence. Thus when they fight they have the mobility for cavalry and the staying power of infantry; and with daily training and practice they have become so efficient that even on steep slopes they can control their horses at full gallop, check and turn them in a moment, run along the pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot with incredible speed, (Gallic War 433; trans. Veyne, Paul, ed. After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. During the second century bce the traditional systems of the Roman Republic began to fracture in the face of protracted foreign wars, an influx of foreign slaves, and extraordinary opportunities for wealth and prestige to be amassed by generals and their legates (military commanders). Although there have been a plethora of excellent TV and film adaptations of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there have been few that deal with the historical Caesar, Occasionally Caesar has been the subject of the historical novel, most notably in the recent works of Colleen McCullough, Allen Massie, or Steven Saylor but none have achieved anything similar to the phenomenal success of the comic book series created by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. Endings are signaled by a return to winter quarters (books 1, 3, 5, and 6) or the more climactic reference to public thanksgivings in Caesar’s honor (2, 4, and 7). The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … The narrator has obvious familiarity with the work hence rarely misspeaks or mispronounces names or terms. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. S. A. Handford). LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. The book ends laconically: “After this deed Caesar found Gaul somewhat quieter” (Commentarii rerum gestarum, 5.58; trans. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War. The ring-leader, Acco, is flogged to death in accordance with Roman custom, and Caesar heads back to Italy. Reports of incursions by two Germanic peoples (the Harudes and the Suebi) inspire Caesar to march north to prevent Ariovistus from capturing a major town of Gaul—Vesontio. Suddenly a revolt breaks out incited by a member of the Treveri tribe, a Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry. Cambridge, Mass. Over one-third of the book is then taken up with a lengthy digression on the differences between the societies of Gaul and But the Roman world was not yet ready for a monarch. Pollio believed that Caesar gave a false account, either purposely or because of a faulty memory (Suetonius, Caesar 56.4). He portrays the Gauls as deserving to be subjected because they lack Roman qualities. _____The Conquest of Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War] Trans. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar’s response is savage. Language: English: LoC Class: PA: Language and Literatures: Classical Languages and Literature: Subject: Gaul -- History -- Gallic Wars, 58-51 B.C. The leading citizens of Rome could hold a number of political positions as follows, from highest to lowest: Dictator A six-month (or shorter) appointment held by one Roman citizen. They are fickle and undetermined, rash and frenzied, greedy and lazy. Populares These senators used the people to achieve their political aims and objectives, and were often seen as a more democratic and radical groúp. Digressions on the characteristics of the Gauls and Germans are essential to Caesar’s account. In theory, the governance of the Roman state was shared jointly by the Senate and the people of Rome (senatus populusque Romanus). The Commentaries on the Gallic War influenced writers and thinkers in Britain, France, and Germany. His success as an orator led to political and social advancements, which by the late 60s bce had placed him among the most important men in the state. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. A slightly different stance suggests that Caesar wrote the Commentaries in stages but published them all at the same time. On returning to Rome, Caesar was elected to the college of pontiffs (a priesthood with duties ranging from overseeing state sacrifices to serving as an advisory body on sacred law). After several years of civil war from which Caesar emerged victorious, in 44 bce he had himself declared dictator in perpetuum (dictator for life), which demonstrated the obvious: the Republican system of government no longer worked. Seven “books,” which are in fact parts of a single book, make up Commentaries on the Gallic War. In the centuries that followed, Celtic tribes continued to encroach on Italian territory and to offer aid to Rome’s enemies. They commanded the army, conducted the chief elections, presided over the Senate, and implemented Senate decisions. When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. Caesar’s narrative, written in the third person, lays claim to a more impersonal and objective approach. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. He encourages his Roman audience to believe in his actions and in himself. Only the Aduatuci tribe now withstands Rome’s might. S. A. Handford). Caesar’s arrival soon after revives morale. Appointed governor of Rome’s ancient provinces of Gaul and Illyricum, Julius Caesar battles the tribes of Gaul, Germany, and Britain. As appropriate, Caesar metes out pardon or punishment. Aulus Hirtius, published in the mid-40s bce. After their year of office in Rome, praetors and consuls sometimes governed outside Rome in a province, where they were known as propraetors or proconsuls. 51586 Commentaries on the Gallic War — Book 1 Julius Caesar. Along with the tribes of Britain, Germany, and the Danube region, these nations were known collectively as the Celts. Cambridge, Mass. And since I must now accept my fate, I place myself at your disposal. But his measures were short-lived as the actions of certain nobles undermined his constitutional reforms. Out of every eight praetors elected each year, only two could become consuls, and every year there were more ex-praetors competing for those top two positions. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The Roman Army B. Britain Indexes Maps And Plans There ensues a battle in which Caesar’s legions rout the army of Ariovistus. Four times he recalls their annihilation of the Roman army of L. Cassius Longinus in 107 bce. A, Wiseman and P. Wiseman). Trans. Main writing starts at 10:03 mark. Caesar compares and contrasts the civilized ways of Rome to the barbarism of those he conquers. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. ." The Roman winter camps are assaulted by the Gauls. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. In 108 bce Marius campaigned for the consulship of 107 bce. to Caesar became a pressing issue. The Nervii then besiege the camp of Quintus Cicero. The praetor peregrinus (alien praetor) dealt with lawsuits involving foreigners. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. Working closely with the army, tribunes, and the people, Marius’s military successes in Numidia resulted in his election in absentia for the consulship of the Republic in 104 bce. By the time of the Gallic War, Rome had decreed that a ten-year interval was necessary between the holdings of the same office. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. It was even harder for the lower classes and equestrians (businessmen with property worth at least 400,000 sesterces—Roman coins) who had neither the necessary dignitas nor auctoritas, although from time to time the nobles were willing to concede the consulship to a new man, or novus homo, who showed promise. It was also common to praise one’s own achievements when dedicating a monument or writing memoirs. None understood this more than Caesar’s uncle, Gaius Marius. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. In 63 bce, a Gallic tribe, the Allobroges, who had long been faithful to the Roman cause, rebelled when their appeal for debt relief fell on deaf ears. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. Asterix and the Secret Weapon. The standard position is that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War were a synthesis of his earlier campaign reports, and that he wrote and published them after the successful completion of business in Gaul in 52-51 bce. The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. A new army and a new general, L. Cassius Longinus, advanced against the Tigurini. For not long after the conquest of Gaul, the unusual antics of the essedarii made them a regular feature m the Roman amphitheater. In office for 18 months, they took the census, controlled public morals, and had the right to expel senators from the Senate. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. Exposing himself to the same risks as his troops, he won their confidence and trust. Generally, though, Caesar sets up a framework of Roman versus barbarian, portraying the region as a threat to the survival of Roman civilization itself. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. The Latin title, literally Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. ), known as Cato the Elder and Cato the Censor, was a Roman soldier, statesman, orator…, Commerce Department Intelligence and Security Responsibilities, United States, Commercial Production: Interaction Among Peoples, Commercial Production: Methods of Exchange, Commercial Production: Occupations and Work Habits, https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, The Rise of Rome (3rd century bce to 2nd century ce, Communication, Transportation, and Exploration: Overview, Divide and Rule: The Legacy of Roman Imperialism. The events in Caesar’s commentaries unfold in chronological order, always by year and sub-divided by summers and winters, resembling the method characteristic of Roman historiography. Caesar’s narrative is a masterpiece of rhetorical or persuasive composition. Although the Gauls have some degree of a social class structure, they fight one another and the Germans. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. As Lindsay Hall remarks: He ponders things, acts in accordance with pre-arranged plans or principled habit, explains his reasons for strategic or tactical decisions and his other consilia or policies; he…anticipate [s] political or military movements on the part of potential enemies, or the results of actions that have come to an end; he regularly foresees … eventualities, or…carefully excuses failure to do so. In the last century or so of Republican life in Rome, “it mattered who was first and who was second” (Wiseman, p. 7). ." Asterix’s small village fends off the Roman invaders with a little help from a magic potion prepared by a Druid named Getafix. The final sections shift the focus to the challenges to Caesar’s authority at Rome. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. The first blow is struck by Ambiorix, chieftain of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe. In a demonstration of Roman might, Caesar crosses into Germany in order to deter further German incursions into the Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Annual reports by Julius Caesar of his campaigns in Gaul and Britain between 58 and 52 bce, published in Latin in the 50s bce, plus a supplement for 51 and 50 bce by Caesar’s genera! Aedile Each year four aediles were elected. Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C. After an apologetic preface, Hirtius, Caesar’s general, opens with a verbal reference to books one and seven of the Gallic War: “The whole of Gaul was defeated.” (omni Gallia devictd) (Gallic War, 8.1; trans. Trans. Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix (c. 75 BC-c. 46 BC) battled valiantly to keep the Roman army from overrunning the territory of Gaul, as…, Iceni Queen Boudicca (died 61) ruled over a small tribe of Celts who challenged the colonization plans of the Roman Empire in England. The Battle for Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War]. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Original Latin title: "Commentarii de Bello Gallico", sometimes abbreviated as "Bell. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. These are the tactics of chariot warfare. The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. Many had to sell them to wealthier landowners to avoid bankruptcy. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war. The ideal form focused on the doubtful and varying fortunes of an outstanding individual and would contain contrasting emotions of surprise and suspense, joy and distress, hope and fear. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. They acted as paymasters to generals on campaign and supervised the sale of war booty. Undoubtedly Caesar’s skill as an orator was a powerful factor in his election in 63 bce to pontifex maximus, head of the college of pontiffs. C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum [Caius Julius Caesar, Commentaries on His Achievements]. As with Caesar’s exaggerated claims, it is not true. The books are further subdivided into chapters, or subsections. Gaul is entirely occupied by the Romans. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. When it came to his political affiliations, Caesar was a member of the Populares, a demagogu… In 56 bce, assuming peace, Caesar heads for Illyricum. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Ed. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. The highest offices, praetors and consuls, had the right to wage war, to punish citizens, and to impose the death penalty. To advance his ambitions, he joined forces with Pompey and Crassus in an unofficial political alliance known as “The First Triumvirate,” a pact that foreshadowed the end of the Republic. On January 10 and 11 of 49 bce, Caesar, his dignitas irreparably slighted, crossed the Rubicon, a stream separating Gaul from Italy. A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul soon turned into a war … Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Yet in the struggle for personal auctoritas, it became clear that an ambitious politician could use the people to his advantage. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. S. A. Handford. He had operated outside the limits of his provinces without senatorial authority and, by rights, should have been prosecuted. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Praetor At the time of the Gallic War, Rome elected eight praetors a year. Caesar wrote the commentaries on the Gallic War for two main reasons: 1) to put in writing the authoritative account of a very important period in Roman history 2) to justify to the Roman people his military actions in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. He is the diplomat, general, warrior. The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. Nice). 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire Since 1959 Goscinny and Uderzo’s 32 books have been translated into over 100 languages (including ancient Greek and Latin), used as educational materials, and adapted for animation and motion picture (Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar [1999]; Asterix and Obefix: Mission Cleopatra [2002], starring Christian Clavier as Asterix and Gerard Depardieu as Qbefix). However, Caesar had an agenda he wished to promote. For example, Caesar claims that the Helvetii threaten the Roman province and promote anti-Roman sentiment. Despite a magnificent third triumph, the Senate’s refusal to ratify Pompey’s eastern settlement led him to seek support from equally ambitious nobles. In ancient Rome, history was above all a rhetorical and literary genre. With the armies settled in winter quarters, Caesar’s lieutenant Servius Galba attempts to open up a secure trade route across the Alps. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by Fearing the approach of winter, Caesar departs for Gaul. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar presents real or imagined threats to ex-plain away his intervention in Gaul. Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. Publishing a section of Commentaries on the Gallic War annually at the end of a military campaign season would have enabled Caesar to promote himself to the Roman public and to enhance his immediate political ambitions. The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. Bohn. All of this was enhanced by Caesar’s own reports to the Senate and his Commentaries on the Gallic War, which kept the Roman people abreast of his latest conquests. Track Page Views WithAuctiva's FREE Counter Despite setbacks, Caesar establishes Roman dominion over the area that is modern-day France and the low countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg). And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. The narrative paints Vercingetorix as a suitably intelligent and resourceful opponent to the Roman commander. A. ." Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. A dictatorship was a temporary six-month appointment made by the Senate only during times of war. The Gallic War: Commentaries on the Gallic War with an Eighth Commentary. Vercingetorix was given over to Caesar. Caesar. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. Well, not entirely…One small village of the indomitable Gauls still holds out against the invaders. Wiseman, T. P., ed. Caésar’s style in the Commentaries is smooth and concise. 16 Oct. 2020 . Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The so-called popularis politician exploited the needs of the people to serve his own self-interested ends. a German chieftain named Ariovistus (chapters 30-59). Nice). This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. Later he demonstrated how easy it was to pervert the traditional Republican Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. In Caesar’s time the ancient region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) was inhabited by disparate nations, or tribal groups. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. Highly recommended. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. No doubt you’ve heard Winston Churchill’s famous quote that “History is written by the victors,” as was the case with the Gallic Wars. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Power became ever more polarized in the hands of Caesar and Pompey. A. The German historian Theodor Mommsen, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, regarded Caesar as the only creative genius produced by Rome and the last produced by the ancient world. The two works arise out of a chaotic period of self-styled military rulers, growing corruption of governmental processes, gang warfare, and civil war. In A History of Private Life. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. It is perhaps no wonder that just two years later his Roman troops were ready to follow him to the bitterest of encounters—civil war. J. The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. Trans. Tribunes could veto Senate laws, and the election and actions of magistrates. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. Introduction takes up 9 minutes. It is clear why the Romans read this so eagerly, and why it helped his popularity in the home front. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. Election to the office of praetor followed. . The latter. In the account and through the account, Caesar emerges as a model of Roman virtue par excellence. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. At the river Sabis (now Sambre) the ferocity and courage of the Nervii tribe proves a worthy match for Caesar’s legions. For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. The Sugambri retire across the Rhine. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Haphaestus The Romans had a deep-rooted fear of Celtic tribes because of past history. Later on, in 68 bce Caesar was to win acclaim as the new champion of the populares when he proudly displayed images of Marius at his aunt’s funeral. The former advocated an austere style of oratory. In this passage, Caesar, who tended to avoid “the unusual word as a sailor avoids a rock,” captures their novelty by his introduction of the nouns essedum (”chariot”) and essadarius (“charioteer”) into the Latin language. His troops’ first action is against … Others such as Pompey the Great used their popular influence to gain extraordinary commands. Like most young noblemen in Rome, Caesar served a military apprenticeship. In other arenas his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, including rebels in the territory of Aquitania (in today’s southwest France). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Setting out for Britain from Ports Etuis (perhaps today’s Bologna), he leads an army of 2,000 cavalry and five legions (approximately 25,000 infantry soldiers). Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. During his own lifetime and the century that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their uncomplicated style. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. New York: New Press, 2003. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. His troops’ first action is against the Helvetii (chapters 2-29), who have been inspired by their chieftain Orgetorix to migrate from their homeland (in modern-day Switzerland) to Gaul through Roman territory. As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. He takes care to mention individual officers, centurions, and even slaves. In the territory of the Eburones, Caesar sets up camp, appointing Cicero to guard the baggage. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. commentaries on the Gallic War, namely that published in 1918 by Francis W. Kelsey. When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. He avoids coining new words and standardizes the use of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Brutus. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. Book Four reminds us of the ever-present German threat to peace in Gaul. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). He crosses the river Axona (now called Aisne) to aid the town of Bibrax. In general, commentarii were not for publication, but were intended as raw material for the historian. They capture some Roman officials and demand the return of their own hostages. He tried to grant Caesar the special privilege of being eligible to stand for the consulship in absentia so that when he finished his Gallic command he could step directly from one office to the next without a year’s interlude that would have left him open to prosecution. Censor Two censors were elected every five years from among the ex-consuls. Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. Marius had first gained public recognition in 134 bce as a military tribune at Numantia in Spain. had a special interest in word forms. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Chariots had not been encountered by a Roman army in over 150 years. Beginnings of books are often marked off with threats to the peace of Gaul, which continue to justify Caesar’s presence in the territory. Parenti, M. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome. Nice). The era saw the growth of enormous estates (the infamous latifundid), whose rise came at the expense of the smaller landowners. D. McLintock. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. The first words of Caesar’s climactic seventh book: Quieta Gallia (”Peaceful Gaul”) could not have been more precisely chosen. In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. Encyclopedia.com. A. Wiseman and P. Wiseman. Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1985. London: Orion, 2002. Meanwhile, on the Atlantic coast, Publius Crassus, the son of the triumvir, secures the submission of the maritime tribes. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). He ends the year harassing the enemy, searching for Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe, and conducting an enquiry into a conspiracy by two Gallic tribes (the Senones and Carnutes). The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. To add insult to injury, in 51 bce, one of the consuls, M. Marcellus, publicly flogged a senator from Novum Comum (a town in Gaul) to demonstrate that the town did not enjoy Roman citizenship. In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. A. Goldhammer. Trans. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. Bibliography Appendices A. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Caesar arrives, resplendent in the scarlet cloak of a general (Gallic War, 7.88), and ends the resistance of the Gallic tribes. Later, as tribune of the people, he passed a measure limiting the influence of the nobility at elections. Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. Born on July 13, 100 bce into a noble family, Caesar benefited from his family connections, which included an uncle, Gaius Marius, who was a general and seven times occupied the office of consul (the highest ranking government official in Rome). constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. After Caesar’s assassination, it would take another 14 years of civil war for the emergence of an autocrat who was capable of unifying the Senate and the people of Rome. More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East. Citizens often returned home to find their land allotments in ruin. The Gallic War is not only history, but was also a tool used to make history. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. After ordering new ships built, Caesar continues his ad-Vance and encounters Cassivellaunus, lord of the land north of the Thames River. A third view argues that the books were produced and published at stages during the campaign, probably yearly. For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. An interest in grammar and style resulted in On Analogy, a lost work in which Caesar advocated the lucid, pristine style used in his two surviving historical works: Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil War. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. Moving swiftly, Caesar prevents them from crossing the Rhine River. Caesar, Julius. After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. The final word of the incomplete manuscript “contendit…” (He strove …) (Gallic War, 8.55; trans. defending the legal interests and property of plebeians (common people). London: HarperCollins, 1995. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Vol. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Meanwhile, the yearly reports from Gaul and Britain were adding to Caesar’s growing popularity. These officials had aides called lictors, who carried bundles of rods, known as fasces (for flogging) and (when the official was a consul) also carried axes (for executions). Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Julius Caesar himself was one. Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Doing battle, his Roman fleet proves itself superior to the enemy in oarsmanship, speed, and tactics. A. Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). Each successive generation could augment the auctoritas earned by their ancestors and increase their own dignitas through the position, status, and wealth of their family. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. A few years later, when the Senate added Farther Gaul to Nearer Gaul as one of Caesar’s territories, he redirected his attention toward the unruly tribes of Gaul. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. NOOK Book (eBook) $ 0.95. Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. At th…, Punic Wars, three distinct conflicts between Carthage and Rome. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix Silanus was defeated. McDevitte and W.S. In Roman politics, alliances were always unstable because of external pressures and wavering ambitions, and this three-way coalition was no different. When the measure to remove Pompey and Caesar from their commands was vetoed, some senators re-quested that Pompey protect the Republic from the ambitions of Caesar. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1957. Encircling the ramparts of the enemy, the forces of Gaul are successively beaten back. Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. Finally, failing to engage the Suebi, Caesar returns to Gaul, leaving part of the Roman-built bridge standing as a warning to the Germans. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Six years later, after being displayed in Caesar’s triumph, he was executed. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. The excellence of Kelsey’s work is due to its rigor and completeness. When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage cont…, Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder At-tempting to deceive Caesar, the Aduatuci appear to comply but then attack the Romans by night. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980. Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. Meanwhile, he lent support to Pompey and earned popular favor as aedile through his lavish games. In 105 bce at Arausio (modern Orange, France) the combined armies of the Cimbri and Teutones decisively routed the Roman legions of the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Cnaeus Mallius with the reported loss of 80,000 men. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. When Aulus Hirtius remarked in his preface to book eight that “Caesar possessed not only the greatest skill and elegance in writing, but also the surest ability to ex-plain his own plans” (Gallic War 8, Preface, section 7; trans. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). — The opening line, immortalised in Latin language classes. Of just a few weeks earlier is shattered by an unexpected onslaught on Galba’s camp when editing your bibliography Works! Forces of Gaul, Britain, France, and were responsible for the Roman commander defend nation..., Publius Crassus, the 20 quaestors at the same time, Indutiomarus and! Caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless.... A Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry such as Pompey the great used their popular influence to extraordinary! Aduatuci, and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998 rigor and completeness D'Ooge, M. Daniell... 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