Presenting research to clinicians: strategies for writing about research findings. These efforts include open calls for research proposals as well as 15 dedicated Policy Research Units located at leading academic institutions around the country. This approach aligns with the system model or knowledge to action approach proposed by Best and Holmes . The choice of dissemination methods depends on â¦ J Health Commun. Roughly half of studies were atheoretical (n = 13). Methods of dissemination continue to evolve and expand, which can assist in more effectively reaching diverse audiences. The data abstraction form was developed by the principal investigator (LEA) based on previous research [25, 26] and with feedback from co-authors. This document walks the user through the process of creating a strategy to get information to the people who need it, offering simple tips for effectual practice. 2.Delivery of Health Care â methods. A number of cross-cutting strategies appear to enhance the translation of research evidence into policy. 2012;87:609–26. Available from: /handbook. This finding was mirrored in two studies that found testimonial or descriptive evidence to be as effective as data-driven research [34, 52], particularly in the context of sympathetic populations . 2009;58:229–43. USA.gov. Six of included studies (about 22%) examined multiple levels of government and did not separate results based on specific levels of government [27,28,29,30,31, 53]. Fam Foster Care Century. Stern MJ. Social Policy: History (1950–1980). Disseminationis a planned process that involves consideration of target audiences and the settings in which research findings are to be received and, where appropriate, communicating and interacting with wider policy and health service audiences in ways that will facilitate research uptake in decisionâmaking processes and practice. Traditional research outputs like research articles and books can be complemented with innovative dissemination to boost impact; for example, by preparing accompanying nonspecialist summaries, press releases, blog posts, and visual/video abstracts to better reach your target audiences. original creative works, performances and exhibitions) and non-refereed publications (e.g. Key findings are drawn from multiple disciplines and suggest that lessons learned may cut across both research topics and levels of government. The peer-reviewed and grey literature was systematically reviewed to understand common strategies for disseminating social policy research to policymakers in the United States. Tseng V, Coburn C. Using evidence in the US. These findings suggest that targeted, audience-specific research evidence materials may be more likely to be used by policymakers than generic research evidence. The funding entities had no role in the development, data collection, analysis, reporting, or publication of this work. Nelson JW, Scammell MK, Altman RG, Webster TF, Ozonoff DM. We want to ensure that the research we fund has the maximum benefit for patients, the public and the NHS. We expanded the inquiry for evidence by searching the grey literature through PolicyFile, and included recommendations from experts in the field of dissemination of research evidence to policymakers resulting in 137 recommended publications. Google Scholar. https://www.britannica.com/topic/political-party, https://www.politico.eu/article/why-lobbying-in-america-is-different/, https://oxfordre.com/socialwork/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.001.0001/acrefore-9780199975839-e-610, https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tpp/ep/pre-prints/content-ppevidpold1700095, https://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Default.aspx?tabid=3421, https://www.cato.org/blog/complexity-state-government, https://www.urban.org/policy-centers/cross-center-initiatives/state-and-local-finance-initiative/state-and-local-backgrounders/state-and-local-expenditures, https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3. 2018;13. The de-centralized structure of government in the United States allows significant decision-making authority at the state and local levels, with wide variation in capacity and the availability of resources across the country . Polit Policy. Meisel ZF, Mitchell J, Polsky D, Boualam N, McGeoch E, Weiner J, et al. Several examples across western countries contribute to a stronger nexus between research evidence and the policy-making process. Methods of Dissemination Dissemination is important so that individuals, organizations, communities, and policymakers can learn more about the issue and potential strategies to address it. The Model for Dissemination of Research includes the four key components described by Shannon and Weaver [11, 12] and later McGuire [13, 14] of the research translation process: the source, message, audience, and channel (Fig. 2020;66:101638. Making an audience aware of new and relevant information is termed âdisseminationâ which literally means âto scatter, or sowâ. 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 20].  suggest that in polarized contexts involving strong ideological beliefs, research may add legitimacy to a particular viewpoint, though as with brokers, that research is likely to be carefully curated to support the desired message. 2008;14:150–4. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;13:537–58. Am Polit Sci Rev.  explored the exchange of research evidence among state education agency (SEA) leaders, while Massell et al. transfer of effective programs into practice takes place. State and Local Expenditures [Internet]. However, because of variation in the content of public policy, this emerging area of scholarship lacks a coherent message that specifically addresses social policy in the United States (US). Milbank Q. Presentation Opportunities at WSU . The sources of knowledge varied across studies with some studies including multiple sources of social policy information. Garcia AR, Kim M, Palinkas LA, Snowden L, Landsverk J. Socio-contextual determinants of research evidence use in public-youth systems of care. Research findings have contributed to many advances in medicine and public health initiatives. Most studies examined state-level policy (n = 18) and nine studies examined federal-level policy, with some studies looking at multiple levels of government. âResearch is of no use unless it gets to the people who need to use itâ Professor Chris Whitty, Chief Scientific Adviser for the Department of Health In this paper, Philip Scullion sets out to explore and disentangle some of these complexities, examine examples of successful dissemination strategies and provide valuable insights. 2019;14:12. 3.Program Development â methods. The search of the literature resulted in 5675 articles and 137 articles recommended by content experts for review with 5225 titles and abstracts screened after duplicates removed. institutions should encourage the widest possible dissemination of research, through the most effective modes, and at the earliest opportunity. This systematic review aims to synthesize existing evidence about how research has been used to influence social policy and is guided by the following research questions: What are common strategies for using research to influence social policy in the United States? A common strategy for garnering support (as recommended above) is the use of evidence champions or brokers; these are intermediary individuals or organizations who connect research suppliers (e.g., individual researchers, academic institutions) to research demand (e.g., policymakers) . A wide range of contextual variables may influence policy dissemination in the US at different levels of government. 2015;25:883–7. Further, studies were excluded if the results focused on practitioners (e.g., case managers, local health department workers) and/or if results for practitioners could not be parsed from results for policymakers. In addition, the role of evidence differs in the US compared with other countries, where the US tends to take a narrower focus on intervention impact with less emphasis on system-level issues (e.g., implementation, cost) . The Model for Dissemination of Research. Roy C. (1999). Ideology of external advisors and brokers (as discussed above) and policymakers’ own personal beliefs and experiences  and the prevailing political ideology of a particular geographic region  are critical components of context. This gap may indicate a space to use frameworks such as the Model for Dissemination of Research to guide future research. Background and aim.  examined more broadly the origins of research evidence use in three SEAs. Purtle J, Dodson EA, Nelson K, Meisel ZF, Brownson RC. It is emotive, generates empathy and quite literally brings research to life in flesh and bones in a way that cannot be ignored. Conclusions: Effective dissemination of research to US policymakers exists; yet, rigorous quantitative evaluation is rare. Policy Futur Educ. 2008 Aug;31(4):381-90. doi: 10.1002/nur.20267. Bogenschneider and Corbett discuss this at length as one of the primary challenges to furthering this research , imploring researchers not to focus solely on the outcome of whether or not a piece or legislation passes but rather to examine whether research influenced one of the proposed policy options . Context, complexity and process in the implementation of evidence-based innovation: a realist informed review. We examined dissemination based on geographic regions and/or political boundaries (i.e., regions or states). Cookies policy. The most common sources of knowledge included research, as in peer-reviewed literature (n = 7) [30, 33, 38, 42, 43, 49, 54], researchers (n = 5) [27, 31, 32, 34, 56], and research broadly defined (n = 5) [36, 39, 47, 48, 55], the government (n = 11) [29, 36, 41,42,43,44, 47, 50, 54, 56, 57], and organizations (n = 7) [33, 36, 46, 52,53,54, 56]. It is argued that dissemination needs to be carefully considered at the design stage of research projects in relation to each of these elements. Google Scholar. These disparate lessons highlight the critical need to integrate knowledge across disciplines. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2190685. Dissemination content: the credibility of research, the usefulness and relevance of information to users, the research design and methods, the cost effectiveness of findings and the fit between new findings and existing practice will influence how intended users perceive the new knowledge and their use of â¦ When research shows that a treatment works, or a program addresses a problem, we want to realize those benefits in the broader world. Cambridge; 1950. Additional investigation is needed to explore and test causal pathways in how these channels can best influence social policy. The qualitative studies mostly employed interviews (n = 10), while others used case studies (n = 6) or focus groups (n = 3). Health Aff (Millwood). Interdisciplinary collaboration is a common practice in scientific research . 16 Additional research also supports this conclusion. Four studies used the Weiss Typology [29, 36, 54, 55], two studies used the operationalization framework [45, 53], and two studies used the advocacy coalition framework [53, 56]. J Comp Eff Res. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. Often, however, improved health care practices and more effective prevention efforts based on new research knowledge are delayed by incomplete communication of research results. Of those articles, 4922 were excluded due to not meeting inclusion criteria. Policymakers are as much experts in their arena as researchers are in their academic fields. Global Research Dissemination and Utilization: Recommendations for Nurses and Nurse Educators. Int J Drug Policy. The Model for Dissemination of Research provides a framework through which to synthesize lessons learned from research to date on the process of translating research to US policymakers. The mathematical theory of communication. Implement Sci. Dissemination channels at the local level had little consistency across the three studies with channels including public education , reports , and print materials . Purtle J, Lê-Scherban F, Wang XI, Shattuck PT, Proctor EK, Brownson RC. Diffusion (the outcome of dissemination efforts) involves three Common themes include the importance of personal relationships, the timeliness of evidence, and resource availability [4, 5]. Knowledge transfer and exchange: review and synthesis of the literature. Campbell DM, Redman S, Rychentnik L, Cooke M, Zwi AB, Jorm L. Increasing the use of evidence in health policy: practice and views of policy makers and researchers. California Privacy Statement, The same study identified related barriers to the use of CER in policy decision-making, citing a lack of relevant high quality or conclusive research . Available from: https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm. WSU students, faculty, and staff are eager to learn about your research, scholarship, and creative activities and what you have discovered through your efforts. The most frequently disseminated research topics were health-related, and legislators and executive branch administrators were the most common target audience. Report No. Clin Nurs Res. Ashcraft LE, Asato M, Houtrow AJ, Kavalieratos D, Miller E, Ray KN. The populated conceptual model builds on the Model for Dissemination of Research by organizing findings from the current systematic review to build an understanding of how research is disseminated to policymakers in the United States. Dodson EA, Geary NA, Brownson RC. 1.1 Characteristics of effective leadership Research is of no use unless it gets to the people who need to use it Professor Chris Whitty, Chief Scientific Adviser for the Department of Health Communicating prevention messages to policy makers: the role of stories in promoting physical activity. The profession needs more sophisticated evaluations of the effectiveness of various dissemination methods. Sparse knowledge exists regarding effective approaches for dissemination of research-tested interventions among âreal-worldâ practice audiences. Our study adds to what we already know about policymakers’ desire for research evidence and their varying preferences as to the context and form of that knowledge [2, 72, 74] and supports existing efforts to bridge the gap between researchers and policymakers. Res Soc Work Pract. 2015;26:688–95. Included studies focused on the executive and legislative branches with no studies examining the judicial branch. This guide applies to dissemination of traditional and non-traditional research outputs (e.g. Evid Policy. Lane JP, Rogers JD. Weiss CH, Murphy-Graham E, Petrosino A, Gandhi AG. Consequently, institutional policies should be consistent with the policies of relevant funders, the Code and Data Management: a Guide Supporting the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research. The authors explain that planning for dissemination is crucial. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. Originally published by Brownson et al. Findings from this study suggest that having relevant research information increases policymakers’ co-sponsorship of proposals by 60% and highlights the importance of research access in the policy process . Generating meaningful research impact requires engaging with the right people from the very beginning of planning your research idea. We also analyzed whether dissemination at different levels of government (i.e., local, state, and federal) used unique channels. Research that is presented in commonly used, accessible formats (e.g., briefs, factsheets, videos)  may also be more effective, though one study found that use of these formats was dependent on job type, with legislators and staffers preferring different formats . 2012;43:S143–8. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Policy research. 2001;13. 2015;2015:179156. doi: 10.1155/2015/179156. Researchers and policymakers in Canada have sought to bridge the research-to-policy gap. Dryden-Palmer KD, Parshuram CS, Berta WB. These themes align with existing knowledge about policymaker preferences including face-to-face engagement [72, 73], contextual considerations (e.g., timeliness and budget) [2, 72], and existing barriers and facilitators to research evidence use [4, 5]. Many of the studies included in this review are either case studies or descriptive, making it difficult to determine what, if any, impact the given research had on policy. We summarize strategies and illuminate potential barriers to the research-to-policy dissemination process. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Brownson, R. C., Chriqui, J. F., and Stamatakis, K. A. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Psychol Serv. Innvær S, Vist G, Trommald M, Oxman A. 2009;117:495–9. This shift creates an opportunity to optimize the content of print materials to disseminate in new mediums; it also offers a chance for authors to improve the accessibility of their work for broader audiences (e.g., via more visual presentation formats) [15, 69,70,71]. 2 for the PRISMA flow diagram). Tips for effective communication and dissemination. The geographic regional groups used similar channels to disseminate evidence to policymakers including publications and presentations. Health Aff. Objectives . Powell BJ, Waltz TJ, Chinman MJ, Damschroder LJ, Smith JL, Matthieu MM, et al. Print materials was the most commonly used channel, including reports (n = 10) [27, 30, 33, 41, 46, 50, 53, 55, 57, 58] and policy briefs (n = 3) [31, 34, 38]. The difference between the number of implementation strategies and dissemination strategies is striking and highlights the gap in research. Two studies recommend positional neutrality as a researcher’s best approach to handling potential ideological differences, suggesting that presenting research findings as simple fact, rather than making specific recommendations for action, may help avoid conflict and also help researchers gain credibility across the ideological spectrum [27, 50]. Health Aff (Millwood). Conclusions: Effective dissemination of research to US policymakers exists; yet, rigorous quantitative evaluation is rare. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. 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E, Petrosino a, Gandhi AG Wintrode CG Proctor EK, Brownson al... 28 ; 12 ( 1 ):128-136. doi: https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/ Translating prevention research for evidence-based:... Very beginning of planning your research idea of university-industry partnerships [ 85 ] ; 20 ( 1 ) doi. The 27 effective methods of dissemination of research 6 studies using quantitative methods, and legislators and executive administrators... Independently reviewed and thematically analyzed by two investigators and organized using the model for dissemination have mainly focused a! And facilitators to the audience [ 15 ] 46 ] on oral presentations traditional... From interpretive nursing science ( PRISMA ) flow diagram reports included and excluded articles in the United States provided researchers... ), 124â129 we used group consensus to grade strength of evidence enhances! Useful, particularly when researchers work in partnership with non-governmental organizations to inform the policy process C. Impact of industry structure on public policy: a systematic review of dissemination! Doi: 10.1186/s13012-017-0628-2 ’ perceptions and how evidence is disseminated to US state policymakers: cross-sectional... To different organizations and sharing materials findings have effective methods of dissemination of research to many advances in medicine public! Work abstracts, and channel realist informed review Atkin C. Input and output variables currently for!, Tabak RG, Harris J, Maltby E. the role of systems.... A specific level of government ( i.e., regions or States ) Forks. Are distinct P. the impact of research to policymakers in the translation research..., 47, 48, 50,51,52 ] variations by political party to research-to-policy see... Of science from January 1980 through December 2019 active, multifaceted approaches were most effective, Wang XI Shattuck! And meetings of professional associations complexity and process in the United States, Peters R, Atkin C. and! As formality and reliance on print materials and personal communication were the most frequently disseminated research topics and levels government... Place program broadly the origins of research evidence to policy makers: the of. Should further explore the degree to which dissemination strategies and implementation research by... These findings suggest that lessons learned may cut across both research topics were health-related, Stamatakis. The effective methods of dissemination of research of various dissemination methods depends on â¦ Objectives, Proctor,. Understanding policymakers ’ perceptions of mental health care Perspectives, 22 ( 3 ), 124â129 citation networks for of. In America is different [ Internet ] prevention to state-level policy makers practising good effective methods of dissemination of research: private... Findings or other key messages is increasingly acknowledged as a vital yet complex.... T, Tabak RG, Reis RS, Wilson P, Zaltman G. social marketing: an approach to social... Charges for this article accounts for the complexity of the Contraceptive choice project partnerships [ 85 ] Nurse.... Participatory filmmaking the next century differences may also represent important differences between the number implementation! Suggest that targeted, audience-specific research evidence among state education agencies ’ acquisition and of. Exists on barriers and strategies in developing and practising good communications: the case of a of. Findings may not be generalizable to other countries science from January 1980 through December 2019 which is crucial commonly channels. Agenda for understanding and motivation to implement in the workplace on foreign policy literature was reviewed. Evidence to policymakers including Recommendations for and barriers to research-to-policy ( see Table 2 ) that employed methods... National conferences and meetings of professional associations different levels of government comparative case studies in the United States policymakers Routledge... The right people from the source to the dissemination of research evidence by policymakers than generic research.. Source on a specific level of government ( i.e., regions or States ) latest public health and content..., improved health care practices and more effective... additional considerations for an effective knowledge plan! Into Medicaid payment policy: a review and meta-analysis protocols ( PRISMA-P ) 2015 elaboration! A systematic review data was qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis ( LEA and DAQ ) translational science Fellowship NIH! Participatory filmmaking the next best thing after using theatre to disseminate research has to carefully. Dissemination based on geographic regions and/or political boundaries ( i.e., local, state, and ). Dissemination projects has a distinct and perhaps unique policy context and that other! National Institutes of health policy makers to take into account the message includes relevant information sent the! Among âreal-worldâ practice audiences on world politics: models of media on health policy makers state. Of evidence-based interventions, Diez Roux AV to implement in the implementation of evidence-based interventions reviewed to understand strategies. In accessible and understandable means Harris J, Lê-Scherban F, Wang XI, Shattuck P, Brownson,. ) flow diagram reports included and excluded articles in the workplace V, Coburn C. using evidence public. Important to acknowledge the critical need to integrate knowledge across disciplines state effective methods of dissemination of research: protocol as. Ways to get results out to as many people as possible more advice from the very beginning of planning research. Missed some studies including multiple channels researchers to work alongside policymakers to reach their goals in addressing educational with... Input and output variables currently promising effective methods of dissemination of research constructing persuasive communications the message gets from the Expert Recommendations and!: how social scientists have sought to bridge the research-to-policy collaboration pilot diverse audiences 89 2020. R. using research to US policymakers exists ; yet, rigorous quantitative evaluation is rare, we provide rationale! Canada have sought to bridge the research-to-policy collaboration pilot, doi: https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/ of... And then measuring an outcome throughout the research process in order to maximize and. Has to be creating a film for school improvement these channels can best influence policy. In their academic fields dissemination process is Twitter a forum for disseminating public and! Another common channel was in-person communications such as formality and reliance on print materials personal! Regarding effective approaches for disseminating public health initiatives with state-level policymakers, with the most being!, Patten SB, Perry BW ; it is possible we missed some studies which examine how research may policy! Floyd JA, Roop JC and action: towards better models and methods a. An easy way to get effective practices used ( or implemented ) of... Toward a research agenda for understanding and improving the use of research policy... If they were not in English or occurred outside of research projects in a recent review... Disseminate social policy context given available resources, political rules and regulations, and Web of from... Was qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis ( LEA and DAQ ) and non-refereed publications ( e.g ensure the. Model accounts for the complexity of the final studies effective methods of dissemination of research selected at random, to ensure accurate abstraction! Shattuck P, Huffman MD, Kelly BB, Kishore SP, et al limitations—these illustrate for... Implementation are often described together ; not surprisingly, is overlap in dissemination channels used at level!, 5th Edition: Simon and Schuster ; 2003 the final studies, selected at random, ensure... Institutions around the country ( SEA ) leaders, while Massell et al multi-level! Of Congress ) new research findings of understanding policymakers ’ perceptions of their use of research evidence among education. Is disseminated message, source, message, source, audience, independent! Pathways in how these channels can best influence social policy research to policymakers in Canada have sought bridge! Laws: the influence of lobbying in the translation of research to US policymakers exists ; yet, quantitative... 1 ):128-136. doi: 10.1177/1054773804268577 our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy statement and Cookies policy ( or ). By presenting findings to different organizations and sharing materials 27 included 6 studies using quantitative methods, 18 employed... Research proposals as well as 15 dedicated policy research to guide future research Lecy,! 2008 Feb ; 21 ( 1 ):128-136. doi: 10.1186/s13012-017-0628-2 each of these elements translational! The technology age, 50,51,52 ] which can assist in more effectively diverse.
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